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Worldwide, huge amounts of biomass residues and waste streams are available like e. Typically, these streams have a low bulk density and contain significant amounts of minerals. When used in conventional systems these minerals may cause ash melting problems or result in high emissions.

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In the second stage a catalyst may be applied. Typical features of the system are:. The charcoal produced in the pyrolysis stage is used to preheat the biomass and to evaporate the water. Charcoal is not used in the high temperature reforming stage. Minerals will not reach a high temperature in the process.

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Due to the application of a fast pyrolysis stage, the amount of charcoal is limited. Biomass is fed to the fast pyrolysis reactor, where organic vapours are produced. Whereas in the pyrolysis process the vapours are condensed, in the two-stage gasifier the vapours are reformed into a clean fuel gas.

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  • The bottom part can be filled with a reforming catalyst to convert remaining tar and ammonia. In the last stage the gas is cooled to ambient. Process Description Biomass is fed to the fast pyrolysis reactor, where organic vapours are produced.

    Thermodynamic and Kinetic Study of Lignocellulosic Waste Gasification

    References Staged gasification: clean fuel through innovative coupling of existing thermochemical conversion systems , E. This process is crucial for the production of clean gas that is compatible with an internal combustion engine because tar gases condense into sticky tar that will rapidly foul the valves of an engine.

    Waste to Energy Gasification

    Cracking is also necessary to ensure proper combustion because complete combustion only occurs when combustible gases thoroughly mix with oxygen. In the course of combustion, the high temperatures produced decompose the large tar molecules that pass through the combustion zone. Reduction is the direct reverse process of combustion.

    Combustion is the combination of combustible gases with oxygen to release heat, producing water vapor and carbon dioxide as waste products. Reduction is the removal of oxygen from these waste products at high temperature to produce combustable gases.

    How Gasification Works | HowStuffWorks

    Combustion and Reduction are equal and opposite reactions. In fact, in most burning environments, they are both operating simultaneously, in some form of dynamic equilibrium, with repeated movement back and forth between the two processes. Reduction in a gasifier is accomplished by passing carbon dioxide CO 2 or water vapor H 2 O across a bed of red hot charcoal C. The carbon in the hot charcoal is highly reactive with oxygen; it has such a high oxygen affinity that it strips the oxygen off water vapor and carbon dioxide, and redistributes it to as many single bond sites as possible.


    The oxygen is more attracted to the bond site on the C than to itself, thus no free oxygen can survive in its usual diatomic O 2 form. All available oxygen will bond to available C sites as individual O until all the oxygen is gone.

    Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels via Gasification

    When all the available oxygen is redistributed as single atoms, reduction stops. Both H 2 and CO are combustable fuel gases, and those fuel gasses can then be piped off to do desired work elsewhere. These are the most easily understood of the Five Processes of Gasification. They do what we think by common understanding, though now they do it in the service of Pyrolysis and Reduction.

    Combustion can be fueled by either the tar gasses or char from Pyrolysis. Different reactor types use one or the other or both. In a downdraft gasifier, we are trying to burn the tar gasses from pyrolysis to generate heat to run reduction, as well as the CO 2 and H 2 O to reduce in reduction. The goal in combustion in a downdraft is to get good mixing and high temps so that all the tars are either burned or cracked, and thus will not be present in the outgoing gas.

    The char bed and reduction contribute a relatively little to the conversion of messy tars to useful fuel gasses. Solving the tar problem is mostly an issue of tar cracking in the combustion zone. Drying is what removes the moisture in the biomass before it enters Pyrolysis. All of the water in the biomass will get vaporized out of the fuel at some point in the higher temp processes. Where and how this happens is one of the major issues that has to be solved for successful gasification.

    More simply you might just think of gasification as burning a match, but interrupting the process by piping off the clear gas you see right above the match, not letting it mix with oxygen and complete combustion. Or you might think of it as running your car engine extremely rich, creating enough heat to break apart the raw fuel, but without enough oxygen to complete combustion, thus sending burnable gasses out the exhaust.

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    This is how a hot rodder gets flames out the exhaust pipes. How Gasification Works. Gasification as incomplete combustion Gasification is most simply thought of as choked combustion or incomplete combustion. How we get there: the Five Processes of Gasification.


    Pyrolysis Pyrolysis is the application of heat to raw biomass, in an absence of air, so as to break it down into charcoal and various tar gasses and liquids. Cracking Cracking is the process of breaking down large complex molecules such as tar into lighter gases by exposure to heat. Recent News Blog Posts.