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Global cities, glocal states: global city formation and state territorial restructuring in contemporary Europe.
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New York: Cambridge University Press. Kraft, Michael E. Environmental Policy and Politics , 3rd edn. New York: Pearson Longman. Labelle, Christine. Government of Canada [cited 12 March ]. Using three main themes of evaluation, this report will outline; the way para-diplomacy can be used to explain the international movements of Wales, the systemic differences found between the executive and legislative branches with in the National Assembly for Wales NAW , and, the role of organisations, like that of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association, in forwarding international relations.http://taylor.evolt.org/sicor-paginas-para.php
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Increased participation on the international stage by regionalised assemblies has become evident in recent decades Duchacek et al. The para-diplomatic analysis conducted in this report will be outlining the theory of paradiplomacy and the effects sub-national legislatures have on developing international networks. Theories of para-diplomacy can be used as a working hypothesis into the many governmental approaches into external relations — including why governments create foreign policy and what they take from the economic, social, and political benefits from international cooperation.
With the growth of global interconnectivity and the importance of the globalisation, the ever growing interconnectivity brought forward by the internet and the liberalization of subnational states, has challenged the traditional workings of the nation-states Magone, ; Camilleri and Falk Indeed when applying para-diplomatic theory to Wales it is key to understand the diplomatic framework.
An interesting feature in this subject area is the difference of policy between the National Assembly for Wales parliamentarians and legislature with that of the Welsh Assembly Government Ministers and Executive. Para-diplomatic theory and European Regions. Theories of para-diplomacy help measure the workings of regional governments and their approaches to external relations. With analysis into how regional assemblies conduct themselves on international stages, this section will undertake to explain why regional governments follow specific polices.
The ever globalised world has increased the importance of regional development, including regional trading and transnational regimes, this in turn has blurred the roles played by national and subnational governments Keating ; ; Royles and Wyn Jones ; Magone The para-diplomatic thesis is an academic analysis of the way subnational governments act on national and international stages Aldecoa and Keating ; Noe Cornago ; Mingus Globalisation has impacted on many political dimensions. The rise of subnational governments is a key political dimension that has changed the way international politics has been conducted in recent history.
It has been this mass regionalisation of diplomacy that has lead to the opening of more than regional embassies in Brussels, engaging in policy development within the European Commission Keating, The NAW and WAG both have offices in Brussels, raising an interesting question on the Welsh model of para-diplomacy; is there a clear motivational and political difference on the international stage, between the Executive and Legislature in Wales? Regionalization changing foreign policy? The regionalization of national politics has led to an interesting situation at the international political level.
Clearly regionalization is not a reactionary policy, but a well founded solution to the ever globalizing world. Expanding numbers of embassies in Brussels, are an arguably clear signal of the para-diplomatic thesis, and the importance and significance of subnational governments. Sub-state networking is another crucial outcome of the regionalization of many European states. A clear example is that of Catalonia: found in the North East of Spain, has battled for recognition in both identity and language Price et al.
This regional support and drive for lesser languages has directly benefited Wales.
Paradiplomacy in Action
In , the use of the Welsh language, was accepted by the EU as a permitted to be used by Welsh ministers in Brussels through pressures and support by other regional sub-states Jones ; Royles and Wyn Jones The National Assembly on the International Stage. The growth of interconnectivity between nations and traditional notions of Wales leaving international issues to Westminster has become very much obsolete.
The acceptance of the growth of international actors both state oriented and non-governmental on global affairs is key to the importance of smaller nation states to exercise their right to create international trade and business Dittgen, ; Cerny, Having accepted the need for international connection the importance of a voice on any international stage is crucial. The CPA provides an example of how an international organisation can supply a voice for the Parliamentarians in sub-state legislatures. Using research gathered by David Creikemans theorizing the constitutional reform of Belgium we can see evidence of how nation states can allow sub-national governments and assemblies the ability to develop foreign policy where they see fit A lot of correlation can therefore be understood between Wales and Flanders, both having acted in their legislatures to protect their own identity and forward the social and political policies to help their regions develop.
The importance of international connections to any nation are vital in forwarding international trade, growing business and increasing global communications.
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The growth of these international ideas and economic opportunity can also be directly linked with the theory of para-diplomacy, which begins to explain the growth of regionalized diplomatic states trying to achieve freedom from interdependence Rokkan and Urwin, ; Cornago ; Druckman Para-diplomatic theory suggest that, there is a significant correlation between economic motivations and sub-state international connectivity Storper ; Keating ; Smith These motivations can be explained by sub-state legislatures increasing their policy fields as to encapsulate as much international identification and therefore investment opportunities in their regions.
This therefore explains in a clear way, the importance that sub-state legislatures in playing a crucial role in the forwarding of international cooperation, be it; economic, cultural, or political. This section of the report will be used to investigate and evaluate the way in which Wales conducts itself abroad, be it represented by the Welsh Assembly Government or the National Assembly for Wales. As it has been outlined in previous sections, para-diplomacy is the ever growing importance of sub-state governments in international politics, as a result of the diminishing role of sole state actors.
Wales is firmly situated in a position of global engagement. The evidence, of para-diplomacy theory to build international confidence in regions which have had previously poor economic and political growth, can be found in central and eastern Europe post As international connectivity, cooperation and business helped integrate nations at the end of the Cold War into the growing European economic system Schumann, ; Dalton, ; Castro in Aldecoa and Keating, It is therefore logical for the WAG and NAW to seek further international connection to forward through para-diplomatic opportunities in areas such as business, tourism and external relations.
This quotation helps to evaluate the overall para-diplomatic theory when applied to Wales.
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With the ever increasing mobility of wealth and economic capital, nations like Wales, have an opportunity to expand in areas of economic and political significance Keating ; ; Royles and Wyn Jones A clear example of a sub-state regional pushing of development and identity is that of Flanders Belgium. This can be directly linked to the development of the Welsh language. Author: Lecours 1. Keywords: Quebec ; regional negotiation ; paradiplomacy ; Wallonia.
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